Long-Term Hardship in the Labor Market
In this paper, the authors attempt to paint a demographic portrait of long-term hardship in the labor market. Hardship is analysed in relation to various indicators such as race, gender, education and age. In addition to the conventional long-term unemployment rate, a broader measure which captures additional dimensions of long-term hardship is also used. This additional measure is the Bureau of Labor Statistic’s “U-6” alternative unemployment rate, which adds “discouraged” workers, the “marginally attached,” and workers who are “part-time for economic reasons” to the official unemployment rate.
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John Schmitt, Janelle Jones
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